What is Sickle Cell Anemia?
Sickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease) is a disorder of the blood caused by inherited abnormal hemoglobin. The abnormal hemoglobin causes the cell to be sickled appearing under a microscope. The sickled red blood cells are fragile and When the number of red blood cells decreases because of the destruction of red blood cells, anemia is the result. This condition is referred to as sickle cell anemia. The misshaped sickled cells can also block blood vessels causing tissue and organ damage and pain because of an insufficient amount of oxygen.
- Hypoxia (decrease in oxygen to body tissue)
- Drug and alcohol use
- Pregnancy and stress
techniques can be used to diagnose the disease?
A Regular blood test can check for hemoglobin S(an abnormal type of hemoglobin) S— the defective form of hemoglobin that underlies sickle cell anemia. In many, this blood test is part of routine newborn screening done at the hospital. But older people should also externally test it too.
The blood sample is screened to check the presence of the sickle cell gene and the count of RBC . If the test is positive then the gene is present,which is why additional test are prescribed by your doctor.
Sickle cell disease can be diagnosed in an unborn baby by sampling some of the fluid surrounding the baby in the mother’s womb.
Other organs getting affected?
The whole central Nervous ,circulatory and nervous system is effected as the cell travels all around the body.Blood clots affect the large vessels in the brain.
Kidneys: Some amount of kidney damage occurs in nearly every person with sickle cell disease.
- Heart attacks can occur
- The liver can also be affected by severe sickle cell crisis.
- Blood problems:
Possible Treatment for the diseases:
New scientific advancements play a major role in the treatment of the sickle cell anemia.There are very few ways to cure this disease like Bone marrow transplantation and blood transfusion.Scientists are trying to create more advanced technology like gene therapy and new medicines so that the affected people have various options and according to them they can try to cure the disease.Details of all the possible/future cure is mentioned:
Research on bone marrow transplants, gene therapy, and new medicines for sickle cell anemia is ongoing. The hope is that these studies will provide better treatments for sickle cell disease. Researchers also are looking for ways to predict the severity of the disease.
Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone marrow transplants can cure sickle cell disease. Because the procedure has significant risks, transplants are not appropriate for every patient.
Bone marrow transplants are used primarily in young patients who have severe sickle cell disease. However, the decision to give this treatment is made on a case-by-case basis.Bone marrow used for a transplant must come from a closely matched donor. This is usually a close family member who doesn’t have sickle cell disease.Researchers continue to look for ways to reduce the risks of this procedure and to widen its application.
Scientists are studying gene therapy as a possible treatment for sickle cell disease. Researchers want to know whether a normal gene can be put in the bone marrow of a person who has sickle cell disease. This would cause the body to make normal red blood cells.
Researchers also are studying whether they can”turn off” the sickle cell gene or”turn on” a gene that makes red blood cells behave more normally.
Researchers are studying several new medicines for sickle.
Implication of transplantation and advances method:-
Social :-People believe that people blood transfusion is connected to HIV / Aids , so some people does not prefer this method to cure sickle cell disease. chemicals or drugs can to given to conquer immune system which can create many other problem in the body system.
Ethical:- Some times blood transfusion or blood bank does not give blood to poor and hold blood for rich. In many case the bone marrow is transplanted without taking permission / consulting their family , which creates ethical issues.Corruption here is a major problem
Economical:- Bone marrow transplant is very costly , that’s why many people does not transplant bone marrow but they rather prefer to take medicine.